Footnote 51, Chapter 4, Page 105:

Lijphart’s discussions of Lebanese and Cypriot history emphasize how threats with origins external to countries promote both patriotism and conflict. For instance, Lijphart claims that “it is primarily to Lebanon’s increasingly unfavorable international environment- combined with the internal flaw of consociational rigidity- that the 1975 breakdown of the democratic regime must be attributed.” He does explain that Lebanese consociation was not “blameless” for its system’s breakdown and that “Cyprus… is admittedly a case of consociational failure.” Lijphart also blames the Cypriot system failure less on international events than that which occurred in Lebanon. However, he emphasizes that “[e]xternal threats and interventions emanating mainly from Turkey and Greece… hurt… internal unity,” in a situation in which there was no “overarching” Cypriot loyalty “to counteract the divergent Greek and Turkish nationalisms dividing the islanders.” Lijphart’s discussion of Cypriot developments suggests that Greek and Turkish involvement encouraged the eventual civil war which ended consociational government. His claim that international intervention significantly influenced the stability of consociational systems in Lebanon and Cyprus indicates his belief that such involvement can explain substantial variation in the effects of his system in plural societies. To ensure that apparent ramifications of consociation in plural societies are not the result of international intervention, the latter phenomenon must also be represented in this analysis.